How to feed apple trees in spring
Fruit trees always require more and pull everything they can from the ground. Therefore, in order for the garden to remain beautiful, healthy and productive, it must be fed. And all the time from the moment the frosts finally end. We tell you how to feed an apple tree in spring!
How to understand whether additional nutrition is needed and what is missing?
In the spring of the apple tree, the first thing you need is nitrogen in its various manifestations. It starts vegetative processes and contributes to the growth of deciduous mass. It is introduced in different forms even when the young tree no longer requires any other feeding.
The lack of nutrients first appears on the old leaves, because the tree is trying to lose “ballast”. The sure signs of imbalance are small, sluggish and deformed leaves and buds, crooked shoots, discoloration of petioles, chlorosis. With a large deficiency of potassium, marginal necrosis of leaf plates begins, which gradually spreads further.
The main thing is not to harm or burn the root system. Do not mix fresh manure and compost into the soil, pour concentrated nitrogen mixtures under the root and abuse copper. Do not use last year's stocks of fallen leaves or weeds for fertilizer - only fresh grass.
The best time to feed the apple tree
The feeding schedule for apple trees depends on the age of the tree, soil conditions and climatic characteristics of the region. Very young trees need nothing but phosphorus to strengthen the root system. So far, everything else is enough for them in the ground.
After two to three years, you can gradually add nitrogen. By the end of April, in addition to it, use potassium-phosphorus mixtures - about 2/3 of the norm for adult trees. Before the start of the growing season, one more point dressing is needed - micronutrient fertilizers.
For young trees, fertilizers need to be planted away from the root system, but from three years old - already closer to the roots. Insert them into the grooves with a depth of about 40 cm over the entire area of the near-stem circle or dig them into the wells. They can be deeper and two to three pieces per square.
Fertilizers for feeding apple trees
The main and almost the only limitation is not to pour nutrient solutions directly on the rhizome. Watering and granules are combined with spraying, the results of which can be seen clearly literally in a couple of days. Fertilizers in this case can be both mineral and organic.
The main organic fertilizer for spring feeding of apple trees is manure, which contains many nutrients. It improves the condition and structure of the soil and contributes to the collection of green mass. Also use a solution of bird droppings, which is very easily absorbed by the root system.
In addition to a solution of fresh manure, humus from last year's overripe is suitable. It is embedded in the ground during loosening. In the same way, peat-based compost can be added - one of the most versatile fertilizers.
In the spring, the first thing you need is ammonium nitrate. Distribute about 40 g of granular fertilizers around the crown. A distance of about half a meter from the trunk, and not along the stem, helps to protect the sensitive root system. In addition to it, for feeding, you need 600 g of urea.
Superphosphates and potassium salt are used for spring feeding of apple trees. The most delicate method to add potassium is in the form of sulfate, in which there is no chlorine. It is an excess of chlorine that most often provokes chlorosis in fruit trees.
Separate microelements are introduced pointwise in the form of micronutrients - these are molybdenum, boron, manganese. For the prevention of chlorosis, spraying with iron sulfate is necessary: 1 tbsp. vitriol, 2 tsp citric acid in a bucket of water. And bacterial fertilizers are useful for improving the structure of the soil.
Only 3 g of sodium humate per bucket of water when spraying increases the immunity of the apple tree and eliminates the remains of nitrates. In the spring, the tree will gain strength faster and recover after frost. Potassium sulfate in granules is also rich in calcium, magnesium and sulfur.
Apple trees need a lot of nutrients, especially if it's an old tree that is over seven years old. Therefore, many home recipes are not too good, because they are not saturated enough. But still there are a few win-win options!
Feeding apple trees with ash
Wood ash contains potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and also molybdenum, copper and manganese. All useful substances in it are in an optimal digestible form, therefore, ash is taken in dry form or solutions are prepared from it. But you should not abuse it anyway, because it is alkaline, and this is dangerous for beneficial organisms in the ground.
Topping an apple tree with weeds
Freshly cut grass and weeds by gardeners are called green manure and are widely used to fertilize apple trees. To prepare a concentrated infusion, pour a third of the siderat bucket with water and let it brew for about a week. And also the green mass can be immediately ground up during digging.
Feeding apple trees with bone meal
Another fertilizer rich in nitrogen and calcium is bone meal, which is also added in dry and liquid form. To prepare a solution, dilute 200 g of powder in water. This is a good way to reduce the acidity of the soil, which adversely affects the state of the root system.
How to feed an apple tree in the spring for a good harvest?
To increase the yield of the apple tree, fertilizers must be applied according to the schedule. Do not forget about mulching, which has a good effect on the structure of the soil and better preserves the beneficial components with moisture. Trace elements are recommended for spraying: these are magnesium, zinc, borax, vitriol, copper and manganese.
Before kidney formation
The most effective top dressing during swelling of the kidneys is foliar. Only 50 g of urea per bucket of water will help strengthen the vegetative processes, and at the same time will become a prevention from scab. The urea solution helps fight pests that have wintered in the bark of a tree.
With first leaves
The first top dressing can be made at the end of March or as soon as you notice the first tiny leaves on a tree. One tree needs 500 g of urea, 30-40 g of ammonium nitrate and nitroammophoski, or about 5 buckets of humus. For varieties with a superficial root system, do not fill the fertilizer into the soil, but fill the area with granules and spill with water.
At this time, complex mixtures for fruit trees are best suited. They determine the quantity and quality of the future crop. But you can prepare complex fertilizer yourself 10 kg of manure, 1 kg of superphosphate, 800 g of potassium sulfate, 500 g of urea per 200 liters. In a week, about four buckets of such a solution will be needed on a tree.